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Proton Hopping in Living Systems


Lemont Kier*   Pages 1 - 4 ( 4 )


This review focuses on the two-century old concept of proton hopping. Introduced in 1806 by Grottus, it has evolved into an explanation of great diversity in describing many functions in living systems. It is a process involving water, which expands on the belief that life exists only in the presence of water. This review describes the mechanism of the process as it carries information through water. A focus is initially made on the process in water in the nerve systems. The nature of the process in these systems is described as the passage of proton hopping in living systems. In drug-receptor encounters, proton hopping is initiated, carrying specific information from these specialized encounters. The review continues with an explanation of sleep, arising from an alteration in proton hopping. A similar phenomenon of the effect of general anesthetic agents is described, as they interfere with by proton hopping. Finally, memory functions are addressed in the realm of events carried by proton hopping.


proton hopping, nanobubbles, water, memory, nerve, sleep


Medicinal Chemistry Department, Virginia Commonwealth University, 703 Castile Court Apt C

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