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Extraction and Identification of Two Flavonoids in Phlomoides hyoscyamoides as an Endemic Plant of Iran: The Role of Quercetin in the Activation of the Glutathione Peroxidase, the Improvement of the Hydroxyproline and Protein Oxidation in Bile Duct-Ligated Rats

[ Vol. 16 , Issue. 5 ]


Amir H. Doustimotlagh, Salman Taheri, Mahboubeh Mansourian* and Mahdieh Eftekhari   Pages 629 - 640 ( 12 )


Background: Cholestatic liver disease, a serious chronic condition that develops progressive hepatic degeneration through free radicals.

Objective: The present study was designed to extract and identify two flavonoids in Phlomoides hyoscyamoides plant, native to Iran and evaluate the role of quercetin identified on the liver injury among bile ductligated rats.

Methods: This study was conducted on 25 male Wistar rats within three groups of sham control, mere bile duct-ligated, and bile duct-ligated with quercetin. The bile duct-ligated animals received quercetin at a dose of 50 mg/kg/day for 10 days, followed by biochemical tests, oxidative stress markers, activity of antioxidant enzymes and hematoxylin and eosin staining. Molecular docking was used to explore the interactive behavior of quercetin with glutathione peroxidase.

Results: According to analyses of the obtained extract, two main active ingredients of P. hyoscyamoides were rutin and quercetin. Bile duct-ligated group showed a significant liver necrosis, a clear increase in plasma and tissue oxidative stress parameters, and a decrease in glutathione peroxidase activity as compared to sham control group. Quercetin injection in bile duct-ligated rats resulted in significant decrease in hydroxyproline, protein carbonyl and histopathologic indexes and significant increase in glutathione peroxidase activity (P-value‚ȧ0.05). Based on the molecular docking, the quercetin was able to regulate the glutathione peroxidase activity.

Conclusion: The quercetin acts as an enzyme inducer by renewing the glutathione peroxidase activity and inhibiting the oxidation of proteins and hence decreases the oxidative stress. These results could be a sign of confirming the positive role of quercetin in attenuating the liver damage and degeneration.


Phlomoides hyoscyamoides, quercetin, Bile Duct-Ligated (BDL), glutathione peroxidase, oxidative stress, molecular docking.


Medicinal Plants Research Center, Yasuj University of Medical Sciences, Yasuj, Chemistry & Chemical Engineering Research Center of Iran, P.O. Box 14335-186, Tehran, Medicinal Plants Research Center, Yasuj University of Medical Sciences, Yasuj, Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran

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